THE ENGLISH IN NEW BRUNSWICK
Photograph of a Memorial Stone Archway at
Pointe de Bute cemetery. it is
dedicated to the area's
many Yorkshire settlers who arrived in the mid
• Many Yorkshire immigrants came to New Brunswick between
1772 and 1775, settling in what would become Westmorland and Albert counties.
They attracted later followers from Yorkshire but only for a brief period. After
the mid 1820s when Upper Canada (Ontario) became more accessible, its better
climate, soil fertility and job opportunities made it the most popular of
• New Brunswick acquired numerous Loyalists from 1784, many of whom claimed
English ancestry. They mainly settled in the southern half of the province –
especially in the St. John River valley and in Charlotte County.
• The timber trade drove New Brunswick's economic development. It built the
towns of Saint John, Chatham, St. Andrews and Fredericton, created employment
for countless men and encouraged the investment of capital in the province.
Axe-men felling trees in New Brunswick
in the early nineteenth century.
• The English domination of New Brunswick was short-lived. By 1851 the Irish-born accounted for a staggering 71 % of New Brunswick’s
total population, with the Scottish-born representing 12 % and the English-born
10 %. Despite this, the 1871 Census, the first to record their number
along with immigrants directly from England, recorded that the English represented 29 % of the
population - only six percentage points behind the Irish. The majority of people with English ancestry were to be found in
the southern counties of the province.
For further details see Planters,
Paupers and Pioneers, Lucille's book
about Atlantic Canada.